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In abstract algebra and formal logic, the **distributive property** of binary operations generalizes the **distributive law** from elementary algebra. In propositional logic, **distribution** refers to two valid rules of replacement. The rules allow one to reformulate conjunctions and disjunctions within logical proofs.

For example, in arithmetic:

In the left-hand side of the first equation, the 2 multiplies the sum of 1 and 3; on the right-hand side, it multiplies the 1 and the 3 individually, with the products added afterwards.
Because these give the same final answer (8), it is said that multiplication by 2 *distributes* over addition of 1 and 3.
Since one could have put any real numbers in place of 2, 1, and 3 above, and still have obtained a true equation, we say that multiplication of real numbers *distributes* over addition of real numbers.

Given a set *S* and two binary operators ∗ and + on *S*, we say that the operation:

∗ is *left-distributive* over + if, given any elements *x*, *y*, and *z* of *S*,

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Distributive_property

In probability and statistics, a **probability distribution** assigns a probability to each measurable subset of the possible outcomes of a random experiment, survey, or procedure of statistical inference. Examples are found in experiments whose sample space is non-numerical, where the distribution would be a categorical distribution; experiments whose sample space is encoded by discrete random variables, where the distribution can be specified by a probability mass function; and experiments with sample spaces encoded by continuous random variables, where the distribution can be specified by a probability density function. More complex experiments, such as those involving stochastic processes defined in continuous time, may demand the use of more general probability measures.

In applied probability, a probability distribution can be specified in a number of different ways, often chosen for mathematical convenience:

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Probability_distribution

In mathematics and computer science, a **history monoid** is a way of representing the histories of concurrently running computer processes as a collection of strings, each string representing the individual history of a process. The history monoid provides a set of synchronization primitives (such as locks, mutexes or thread joins) for providing rendezvous points between a set of independently executing processes or threads.

History monoids occur in the theory of concurrent computation, and provide a low-level mathematical foundation for process calculi, such as CSP the language of communicating sequential processes, or CCS, the calculus of communicating systems. History monoids were first presented by M.W. Shields.

History monoids are isomorphic to trace monoids (free partially commutative monoids) and to the monoid of dependency graphs. As such, they are free objects and are universal. The history monoid is a type of semi-abelian categorical product in the category of monoids.

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/History_monoid

An **investor** allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return. Types of investments include: equity, debt securities, real estate, currency, commodity, derivatives such as put and call options, etc. This definition makes no distinction between those in the primary and secondary markets. That is, someone who provides a business with capital and someone who buys a stock are both investors. An investor who owns a stock is a shareholder.

The assumption of risk in anticipation of gain but recognizing a higher than average possibility of loss. The term "speculation" implies that a business or investment risk can be analyzed and measured, and its distinction from the term "investment" is one of degree of risk. It differs from gambling, which is based on random outcomes.

Investors can include stock traders but with this distinguishing characteristic: investors are owners of a company which entails responsibilities.

There are two types of investors, retail investors and institutional investors:

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Investor

**Investor AB** is a Swedish investment company, founded in 1916 and still controlled by the Wallenberg family through their Foundation Asset Management company FAM. The company owns a controlling stake in several large Swedish companies with smaller positions in a number of other firms. At year-end 2013 it had a market value of 190.9 billion kronor (€21.4 billion, $29.4 billion), a discount to the Net Asset Value of 11.4%.

December 31, 2013 (in SEK m.)

In 1916, new legislation made it more difficult for banks to own stocks in industrial companies on a long-term basis. Investor was formed as an investment part of Stockholms Enskilda Bank, at the time the largest instrument of power in the Wallenberg family.

Investor held shares in the following companies as of 31 December 2013:

Listed companies

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Investor_AB

In abstract algebra and formal logic, the **distributive property** of binary operations generalizes the **distributive law** from elementary algebra. In propositional logic, **distribution** refers to two valid rules of replacement. The rules allow one to reformulate conjunctions and disjunctions within logical proofs.

For example, in arithmetic:

In the left-hand side of the first equation, the 2 multiplies the sum of 1 and 3; on the right-hand side, it multiplies the 1 and the 3 individually, with the products added afterwards.
Because these give the same final answer (8), it is said that multiplication by 2 *distributes* over addition of 1 and 3.
Since one could have put any real numbers in place of 2, 1, and 3 above, and still have obtained a true equation, we say that multiplication of real numbers *distributes* over addition of real numbers.

Given a set *S* and two binary operators ∗ and + on *S*, we say that the operation:

∗ is *left-distributive* over + if, given any elements *x*, *y*, and *z* of *S*,

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Distributive_property

Edit
### The upcoming listing of Air Link

Air Link Communication Ltd, importer and **distributer** of mobile phones, has begun the process for its listing on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) ... 22.5m shares will be offered to retail **investors**. ‘**Distribution** companies often fall short of working capital ... **distribution** companies....

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### Stimulant by proxy! Will Rs 60,000 crore in consumer hands do the magic on economy?

On the taxation front, the key initiative, other than the tax charter, was the cancellation of dividend **distribution** tax and making it taxable in the hands of the **investors** ... This will provide convenient access for retail **investors**, pension funds and long term **investors**....

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### Wells Fargo to cough up $3bn in fines over fake-accounts scandal

About $500m of the penalties will go to the SEC to be **distributed** to **investors** to settle charges that the bank committed fraud by misleading **investors** about its sales practices, an SEC official said ... Over the past three years Wells Fargo has taken various steps to fix its issues and rebuild trust with customers, **investors** and regulators....

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### Wells Fargo Fined $3 Billion for 15 Years of Illegal Practices Affecting Millions of Customers

The SEC independently issued a press release Friday confirming that Wells Fargo had agreed to pay $500 million “for misleading **investors** ... The $3 billion payment resolves all three matters, and includes a $500 million civil penalty to be **distributed** by the SEC to **investors**....

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### Wells Fargo pays $3 billion to settle fake accounts scandal

Wells Fargo's reputation has never fully recovered from the sales scandal, even four years later. The $3 billion payment includes a $500 million civil payment to the Securities and Exchange Commission, which will **distribute** those funds to **investors** who were impacted by Wells’ behavior ... Attorney Nick Hanna for the Central District of California ... ....

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### Reverse of DisCos shares in PHCN could cost FG 200% of initial sum – experts

“This was what enabled them to sell 60% of their shares to the Discos and private **investors**. The sale was underscored by various agreements such as the shareholders’ agreements between the **investors** and the **distribution** companies. “The performance was signed before the **investors**, Discos and the Bureau for Public Enterprise....

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### Wells Fargo to pay $3 billion settlement for violating antifraud rules, resolving fake account probes

The agreement, with the SEC and Justice Department, says the banking giant misled **investors** about its strategy of selling additional financial products to existing customers, according to the SEC ... The company agreed to not commit the violations in the future and pay a $500 million civil penalty, which the SEC will **distribute** to **investors**....

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### Wells Fargo to pay $3 billion to U.S., admits pressuring workers in fake-accounts scandal

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### Wells Fargo to pay 3 bln USD to settle fake accounts scandal

WASHINGTON, Feb. 21 (Xinhua) -- Wells Fargo, one of the leading U.S. banks, has agreed to pay 3 billion U.S. dollars to settle criminal and civil investigations with the U.S ... Attorney's Office ... The 3-billion-dollar payment includes a 500-million-dollar civil penalty to be **distributed** by the SEC to **investors** ... U.S ... ....

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### Wells Fargo to pay $3B to resolve probes into fake accounts

The $3 billion payment includes a $500 million civil payment to the Securities and Exchange Commission, which will **distribute** those funds to **investors** who were impacted by Wells' behavior. Before the scandal broke, Wells Fargo was considered to have a sterling reputation among the big banks ... Former chief executive John G ... ....

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### Business Briefs: EPIC Talent Solutions hosts job fair Wednesday at Times Free Press

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### Wells Fargo will pay $3 billion to resolve probes into accounts

The $3 billion payment includes a $500 million civil payment to the Securities and Exchange Commission, which will **distribute** the funds to **investors** who were impacted by the bank's behavior. "Wells Fargo traded its hard-earned reputation for short-term profits," said U.S. Attorney Nick Hanna for the Central District of California ... ....

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WorldNews.com | 24 Feb 2020

South China Morning Post | 24 Feb 2020

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