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In abstract algebra and formal logic, the **distributive property** of binary operations generalizes the **distributive law** from elementary algebra. In propositional logic, **distribution** refers to two valid rules of replacement. The rules allow one to reformulate conjunctions and disjunctions within logical proofs.

For example, in arithmetic:

In the left-hand side of the first equation, the 2 multiplies the sum of 1 and 3; on the right-hand side, it multiplies the 1 and the 3 individually, with the products added afterwards.
Because these give the same final answer (8), it is said that multiplication by 2 *distributes* over addition of 1 and 3.
Since one could have put any real numbers in place of 2, 1, and 3 above, and still have obtained a true equation, we say that multiplication of real numbers *distributes* over addition of real numbers.

Given a set *S* and two binary operators ∗ and + on *S*, we say that the operation:

∗ is *left-distributive* over + if, given any elements *x*, *y*, and *z* of *S*,

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia -
https://wn.com/Distributive_property

In probability and statistics, a **probability distribution** assigns a probability to each measurable subset of the possible outcomes of a random experiment, survey, or procedure of statistical inference. Examples are found in experiments whose sample space is non-numerical, where the distribution would be a categorical distribution; experiments whose sample space is encoded by discrete random variables, where the distribution can be specified by a probability mass function; and experiments with sample spaces encoded by continuous random variables, where the distribution can be specified by a probability density function. More complex experiments, such as those involving stochastic processes defined in continuous time, may demand the use of more general probability measures.

In applied probability, a probability distribution can be specified in a number of different ways, often chosen for mathematical convenience:

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https://wn.com/Probability_distribution

In mathematics and computer science, a **history monoid** is a way of representing the histories of concurrently running computer processes as a collection of strings, each string representing the individual history of a process. The history monoid provides a set of synchronization primitives (such as locks, mutexes or thread joins) for providing rendezvous points between a set of independently executing processes or threads.

History monoids occur in the theory of concurrent computation, and provide a low-level mathematical foundation for process calculi, such as CSP the language of communicating sequential processes, or CCS, the calculus of communicating systems. History monoids were first presented by M.W. Shields.

History monoids are isomorphic to trace monoids (free partially commutative monoids) and to the monoid of dependency graphs. As such, they are free objects and are universal. The history monoid is a type of semi-abelian categorical product in the category of monoids.

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https://wn.com/History_monoid

An **investor** allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return. Types of investments include: equity, debt securities, real estate, currency, commodity, derivatives such as put and call options, etc. This definition makes no distinction between those in the primary and secondary markets. That is, someone who provides a business with capital and someone who buys a stock are both investors. An investor who owns a stock is a shareholder.

The assumption of risk in anticipation of gain but recognizing a higher than average possibility of loss. The term "speculation" implies that a business or investment risk can be analyzed and measured, and its distinction from the term "investment" is one of degree of risk. It differs from gambling, which is based on random outcomes.

Investors can include stock traders but with this distinguishing characteristic: investors are owners of a company which entails responsibilities.

There are two types of investors, retail investors and institutional investors:

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https://wn.com/Investor

**Investor AB** is a Swedish investment company, founded in 1916 and still controlled by the Wallenberg family through their Foundation Asset Management company FAM. The company owns a controlling stake in several large Swedish companies with smaller positions in a number of other firms. At year-end 2013 it had a market value of 190.9 billion kronor (€21.4 billion, $29.4 billion), a discount to the Net Asset Value of 11.4%.

December 31, 2013 (in SEK m.)

In 1916, new legislation made it more difficult for banks to own stocks in industrial companies on a long-term basis. Investor was formed as an investment part of Stockholms Enskilda Bank, at the time the largest instrument of power in the Wallenberg family.

Investor held shares in the following companies as of 31 December 2013:

Listed companies

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https://wn.com/Investor_AB

In abstract algebra and formal logic, the **distributive property** of binary operations generalizes the **distributive law** from elementary algebra. In propositional logic, **distribution** refers to two valid rules of replacement. The rules allow one to reformulate conjunctions and disjunctions within logical proofs.

For example, in arithmetic:

In the left-hand side of the first equation, the 2 multiplies the sum of 1 and 3; on the right-hand side, it multiplies the 1 and the 3 individually, with the products added afterwards.
Because these give the same final answer (8), it is said that multiplication by 2 *distributes* over addition of 1 and 3.
Since one could have put any real numbers in place of 2, 1, and 3 above, and still have obtained a true equation, we say that multiplication of real numbers *distributes* over addition of real numbers.

Given a set *S* and two binary operators ∗ and + on *S*, we say that the operation:

∗ is *left-distributive* over + if, given any elements *x*, *y*, and *z* of *S*,

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia -
https://wn.com/Distributive_property

After nearly a decade, defrauded **investors** of the Tom Petters fraud scheme have started recouping some of their losses ... Federal law allows the Department of Justice to **distribute** the proceeds from the forfeited items to victim **investors** who lost money in the financial crime....

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A persuasive ICO deck or pitch that addresses **investor** considerations is key to successfully selling your token ... Getting clear as to why you’re building the blockchain application and illustrating the magnitude of the problem you’re solving will help you get initial buy-in from **investors** ... This is perhaps the most important piece of information for any token **investor** — the mechanics of the raise and how ICO proceeds will be **distributed**....

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Musk stunned **investors** last Tuesday by announcing on Twitter that he was considering taking Tesla private in a potential $72 billion transaction and that "funding" had been "secured." ... Full and fair disclosure SEC guidelines published in 2013 allow companies and their executives to use social media to **distribute** material information, provided **investors** have been alerted that this is a possibility....

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Musk stunned **investors** last Tuesday by announcing on Twitter that he was considering taking Tesla private in a potential $72 billion transaction and that “funding” had been “secured.” ... SEC guidelines published in 2013 allow companies and their executives to use social media to **distribute** material information, provided **investors** have been alerted that this is a possibility....

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Gladstone Investment Corp.(GAIN) is a high-yield BDC income play that offers income **investors** a 6.8 percent dividend that is paid on a monthly **distribution** schedule ... However, relying on capital gains (and not recurring interest income) to cover the **distribution** is a bit risky, and could cause troubles for shareholders during a recession ... **Investor** Presentation....

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CELP believes that the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA attributable to limited partners and **Distributable** Cash Flow will provide useful information to **investors** in assessing our financial condition and results of operations....

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A former Los Angeles County sheriff's deputy pleaded guilty Monday to conspiring to **distribute** methamphetamine, cocaine and marijuana ... Undercover federal authorities met Collins in August 2017, when an FBI agent posed as the partner of a wealthy **investor** who wanted to finance the production, **distribution** and sale of controlled substances, according to a plea agreement Collins reached with prosecutors....

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Contacts for **Investors** / Media.. Chad ReedTerraForm Power **investors**@terraform.com ... We disclose CAFD because we believe cash available for **distribution** is useful to **investors** in evaluating our operating performance and because securities analysts and other stakeholders analyze CAFD as a measure of our financial and operating performance and our ability to pay dividends....

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Menzies, which traces its roots back to a bookshop founded in 1833, is set to become a pure play aviation business after it agreed to sell its newspaper **distribution** business to a private equity firm, buckling to long-time pressure from top **investors** ... Underlying profit at the company before tax rose to 28.5 million pounds ($36.42 million) from 24.7 million pounds a year earlier. Turnover rose 4.5 percent to 1.25 billion pounds ... 28 ... ....

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America First Multifamily **Investors**, L.P (NASDAQ.ATAX) Q2 2018 Earnings Conference Call August 13, 2018 4.30 PM ET ... I would like to welcome everyone to America First Multifamily **Investors**, L.P.'s NASDAQ ticker symbol ATAX Second Quarter of 2018 Earnings Conference Call ... And then three, it was the biggest benefit to our **investors** ... We'd like to make sure that the buy side performs before we share with our **investors**....

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In effect, **investors** were being asked to reinvest a portion of their **distributions** back into the company ... In late July, American Midstream Partners (NYSE.AMID) slashed its **distribution** by 75% so as to, “…significantly reduce leverage, provide capital for strategic growth opportunities, and create long-term value.” Although these all sound like desirable objectives for a total return **investor**, AMID’s stock fell 43%....

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With that risk in mind, PKO's **distribution** is looking especially stable and secure, so **investors** who are in the fund primarily for the income should currently have a lot of confidence that their income stream is safe ... Since that time, PKO has seen its market price stay the same, but **investors** have seen a positive return of 2.78%, after accounting for **distributions**....

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WorldNews.com | 13 Aug 2018

News18 | 14 Aug 2018

WorldNews.com | 14 Aug 2018

The Post-Standard | 13 Aug 2018

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